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Haïnh thuïc ca



Toi dung quyen "Hanh thuc ca" cua nha xuat-ban Tan-Viet (sang lap nam 1937), tai 20 Amiral Courbet, Sai-gon (quyen nay in theo giay phep so 114/T.X.B. cua bo Thong-Tin Tuyen-truyen Nam-phan Viet-Nam khoang 1950, 1951).

Li ta cua Le than Tran-Trong-Kim


Ke t khoang cuoi the-ky XlX va au the-ky th XX la khoang thi-gian cai chu-ngha thc-dan ben Au-tay ang len manh. Nhng nc ben A-ong nh Trung-hoa, Nhat-ban, Viet-nam va Xiam eu la nhng nc co van-hoa toi co, co nen chnh-tr phan-minh, co ky-cng, co che-o ro-rang, nhng v kem-hen ve ng vu-b, cho nen eu thanh ra nhng mieng moi cua nhng nc thc-dan nh nc Anh, nc Phap, nc c, nc Nga, v.v...
Song moi mot nc trong nhng nc suy-nhc ay co mot hoan-canh, mot tnh-the ac-biet, cho nen co nc nh Nhat-ban, chong thoat khoi s uy-hiep cua cac nc thc-dan; Co nc nh Trung-hoa va Xiam tuy khong en noi mat nc, nhng cung b uy-hiep kha nang; co nc nh Viet-nam ta th khong nhng mat ca quyen t-chu ma con b ngi ta lam tieu ma mat ca tinh-than quoc-gia na.
So phan nc Viet-nam tuy en nam Nham-ngo (1882) mi that quyet-liet, nhng cai d-an cua ngi Phap nh lay nc Viet-nam lam thuoc-a a co t lau, mai ti cuoi i Thieu-tr, tc la vao quang nam inh-v (1847) mi thc-hien ra mot cach ro-rang hn trc.
T o ve sau nc Phap Ch ch co c-hoi thuan-tien la vao anh lay at-ai va uy-hiep u moi ng. Cai phng-sach cua ngi Phap la i t t tng bc mot, trc lay mot na Nam-Viet, sau lay ca Nam-Viet. Khi cong-cuoc Nam-Viet a xep-at au ra ay roi, bay gi mi tm cach ra lay Bac-Viet. Lan au vao nam Qu-dau (1873) quan Phap ra lay thanh Ha-noi roi lai tra lai, e mi nam sau la nam Nham-Ngo (1882) lai anh lay lan na. Qua nam Qu-t (1883) Quan Phap xuong lay thanh Nam-nh, roi en thang t nam ay, ngi thong-suat quan Phap la Hai-quan ai-ta Henri Riviere b quan c en giet gan O Cau-giay. Trong khi quan Phap vao anh pha, viec nc roi loan, th vua Dc-tong thang-ha Hue vao ngay thang sau. Ngai tr-v c 36 nam.
T o ve sau, trong khoang nam sau nam, bao nhieu nhng s au buon xay ra at Viet-nam. Phap a nh anh lay nc ta, th le tat-nhien la ta phai anh lai, song v sc khong u, phai nh quan tau sang cu-vien, thanh ra trong khoang t nam Qu-t (1883) en nam At-dau (1885) at Bac-Viet khap ni b tan pha. Quan Phap thay tnh-the kho-khan, ben sai Hai-quan thieu-tng Courbet sang anh thanh Phuc-chau va vay ao ai-loan. The bat-ac-d, trieu-nh nha Thanh phai ky hoa-c ngay 27 thang t nam At-dau (1885) Thien-tan, cam-oan rut quan Tau Bac-Viet ve va nhan e nc Phap c quyen to-chc cuoc bao-ho Viet-nam.
Bao-ho la mot chnh-sach rat khon-kheo. Khi quan Phap a chinh-phuc c ca nc roi, c e nguyen che-o va cac danh-v cu, ch cot em nhng ngi than-tn hay toi-t cua mnh vao gi cac chc-v e de sai khien. Dan dan ngi Phap thu het ca thc quyen vao tay mnh. Nhng viec nh binh-b, tai-chnh, cai-tr va giao-duc v.v...eu do ngi Phap chu-trng va ieu-khien. Ngi ban x t vua quan tr xuong hoac ch c gi cai h-v, hoac ch c lam nhng chc-vu tha-hanh di quyen ch-huy cua ngi Phap. Theo cai chnh-sach ay th dan-kh trong nhng xu Bao-ho moi ngay mot suy-nhc i, lau dan thanh ra mot hang ngi lam toi-t rat gioi, ma khong co cai t-cach lam ngi t-chu na.
ai-khai nhng viec ay ta co the xem sach v cua Tay hay cua ta ma biet c, con nhng viec xay ra kinh-thanh Hue sau khi vua Dc-tong mat roi, th t ngi biet c ro. Viec trieu-chnh luc ay roi loan do hai ngi quyen-than muon tha c ma chuyen-quyen tung-t. Hai ngi ay la Nguyen van Tng va Ton-that Thuyet, mot ngi coi tien-tai va quan-lai, mot ngi gi het ca binh-quyen trong tay. Hai ngi thoat au tien oi di-chieu cua vua Dc-tong, bo hoanh-tr Duc-c, cach chc quan ng-s Phan nh Phung va lap vua Hiep-hoa. c hn bon thang sau, hai ngi lai bo vua Hiep-hoa roi em giet i, giet ca quan nguyen Phu-chnh Tran Tien-Thanh va lap vua Kien-phuc. Luc bay gi Ton-That Thuyet mo quan Phan-ngha e gi mnh va thng hay tiem dung nghi-ve cua vua; Nguyen van Tng th lay tien hoi-lo cua lu khach buon, cho chung em mot th tien uc ben Tau, theo nien-hieu T-c, goi la tien senh, tien rat xau va rat mong, bat dan kinh-ky phai tieu.
Vua Kien-phuc len lam vua c sau thang th mac benh, mat mot cach kha ng. Tng va Thuyet lap ong ng-Lch mi 12 tuoi len lam vua, tc la vua Ham-nghi. Trieu-nh luc ay viec g cung do hai ngi quyen-than ay quyet-nh tat ca. Ong Duc-c a b truat, khong c lam vua, en bay gi cung b giet. Hoang -than quoc-thch ai lam ieu g trai y hai ngi ay eu b giet hay b ay.
Nhng viec ay eu la viec b mat trong trieu, ngi ngoai kho ma biet c ro rang. May nh luc ay co ba Le-tan Nguyen-nhc-Th em nhng s ba a tai nghe mat thay ma ke ra trong mot bai ca co 1018 cau th luc bat, goi la Hanh Thuc Ca.
Ba Nguyen-nhc-Th (1830-1909) ngi Phan-rang, thuoc tnh Khanh-hoa, con gai quan Bo-chanh Nguyen-nhc Sam. Ba co khieu thong-minh, noi tieng co tai van-hoc, c tuyen vao trong cung ngay t au i T-uc, roi c phong chc Le-tan la mot chc n-quan di bac phi. Sau ba c c lam chc b-th hau ba T-du Thai-hau la me c Dc-tong. Vua Dc-tong th me rat co hieu, moi thang c 15 ngay thiet trieu ban viec nc vi cac quan, 15 ngay sang chau cung, tc la sang chau me, trong nc co viec g quan-trong cung tau cho me biet. Bi vay ba Le-tan Nguyen-nhc-th co the biet ung nhng s thc theo cai quan-iem cua ngi mnh luc bay gi, ma quyen sach cua ba la quyen sach co gia-tr ac-biet ve mot oan lch-s cua nc ta.
Sao ba Nuyen-nhc-th lai e nhan sach cua ba la Hanh-Thuc ca ? La v ba thay cai hoan canh trieu Nguyen luc ay phai bo kinh-thanh chay ra Quang-tr va Quang-bnh giong nh cai hoan-canh trieu-nh nha ng ben Tau ngay xa. Vua Minh-hoang b giac An-loc-sn anh, phai bo kinh-thanh Trng-an chay vao at Thuc e lanh nan. Theo cai ngha ch nho, khi vua i en au goi la hanh. Hanh Thuc la vua i en at Thuc. V co cai hoan canh hi giong nhau nh the, cho nen ba Nguyen-nhc-Th mi lay hai ch ay ma e nhan quyen sach cua mnh.
Van cua ba Nguyen-nhc-Th viet bang ch nom, van-t lu-loat, nhng co nhieu tieng oc theo dong noi vung Nam Trung th ung van, ma oc ung van quoc-ng, th sai. B nhng tieng co ch n ng cuoi cung thng c oc nh tieng co ch ng. Th-du:
an oc ra ang,
an oc ra ang,
xuan oc ra xuang,
khoan oc ra khoang,
hn oc ra hng,
than oc ra thang,
en oc ra thang,
en oc ra eng,
quyen oc ra quyeng v.v...
Lai co mot vai cau th lac van, nhng o co le la khi ngi chep lai viet sai, ch khong phai loi tai tac-gia.
Va cai gia-tr quyen sach cua ba Nguyen-nhc-th la khong phai cau van, ma nhng tai lieu cua ba a nhat c e giup nha lam s sau nay. Cung v the ma khi toi tm c quyen sach nay Hue, toi lien a cho trng Bac-co sao lay mot ban, toi lai cho ban van-hoc Khai-tr-tien-c sao lay mot ban. Con ban cua toi gi, th em dch ra lam may ban bang quoc-ng, phong khi cho nay mat, th cho khac hay con. Ay cung nh vay ma sau cuoc binh la cuoi nam Bnh-tuat (1946) bao nhieu sach v cua toi b ot chay, ma con co ngi gi c mot ban bang quoc-ng. Nay toi em chu-thch nhng tieng kho bang ch nho va nhng tieng toi ngha, roi chia nguyen-van ra tng oan, co e muc nho canh ra, e ngi ta xem cho de hieu.
Quyen sach nay tuy ve ng hnh-thc th be nho, nhng ve ng lch-s, no co cai gia-tr kha ln, cho nen toi vui long em in ra e lam mot sach bo quoc s rat tien-li cho nhng ngi muon biet nhng bien-co kinh-thanh Hue, do mot ngi Viet-nam co a-v ac-biet a ke lai, trong thi-ky ngi Phap mi sang lap cuoc bao-ho at nay.
Viet tai Ha-thanh, thang qu thu, nam Canh dan ( Oct. 1950 )
Le-than Tran-trong-Kim
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