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Sai Vai vi Nguyen-C-Trinh

Toi dung quyen "Sai Vai" cua nha xuat-ban Tan-Viet . Tr-s tam thi: 20 Amiral Courbert (etage No 2), Saigon. Sach c in theo giay phep so 340/ T. X. B. cua bo T. T. T. T. (thong tin tuyen-truyen ?) Nam-phan Viet-Nam. Theo nh bc th thay li ta cua Hai ng Chim Hai Yen va "Dan" cua Le Ngoc Tru, Pham van Luat th sach c tai ban lan au nam 1923. Quyen toi hien co c in khoang 1950, 1951.

I- Gia-the va thi-ai Nguyen-C-Trinh

A.- Gia-the va anh-hng gia-nh giao-duc

Nguyen C Trinh (1716-1767) ngi Tha-Thien, ten ch la Nghi, hieu am Am, con ut ong Nguyen ang e.
Vien-to ong la ngi huyen Thien-Loc (Nghe-An) ho Trnh ten Cam, lam quan nha Le en chc Binh- bo Thng-th. Khi Mac ang Dung cp ngoi Le (1527), Trnh Cam lanh vao Thuan-Hoa, nh chieu-tap nhng ngi trung-ngha giup vua Le khoi phuc ngoi bau ; nhng cha thanh cong ong a mat.
Con chau vao xa An-Hoa, huyen Hng-Tra (Tha-Thien ), i nao cung co ngi thi o, en ang e la bay i.
Ong ang e noi tieng van-chng, thi o sinh-o, lam chc huan-ao, sau thang len tri-huyen Minh-linh. Ong co biet tai ve chanh-s, c thang vao viec van-chc tau-oi ro-rang, ngh-luan thong-suot. Chua Hien-tong Minh-vng (1691-1725) yeu men, cho an ho Nguyen.
Sanh trong mot gia-nh van-gia the-phiet, tat nhien luc thieu thi C Trinh phai c tham nhuan han-hoc va giao-ly Khong-Manh. S chep : ong sm tro thien-tai; mi mot tuoi a biet lam van lam th; sau cung vi ngi anh ho, Nguyen ang Thnh, noi tieng van-chng.
Ong thi o hng-cong khoa Canh Than (1740), c bo lam Tri-phu Trieu-Phong (Quang-Tr). Sau, cung nh cha (ang e), ong c thien sung van-chc; co phong-o, gap viec, th dong mau con nha ngha-kh soi len trong huyet-quan, dam can ngan, ang mat mot bac tranh-than. Khi The-Ton xng vng, nam Giap T (1744), ong c uy-nhiem xem-xet va at-e tat ca cong-van.
oc oan tieu-s nay chung ta chu y mot ieu : von dong ho Trnh, s d gia-nh ong C Trinh pho chua Nguyen Nam-ha la v anh-hng cua gia-nh giao-duc va quyen-li cua giai cap s-phu. Ch can-vng ngha-kh cua vien-to Trnh Cam : "pho Le diet Mac" lu-truyen trong gia-nh ong ang e. Trong con mat nha nho chan-chanh, ChuaTrnh sau nay, cung nh ho Mac thu no, la bon quan-nhan long hanh, cp quyen vua Le, khong ang ton-th.
Va lai, t khi Trnh Tung lan quyen vua Le (1570) va xng Chua (1599), giai cap s-phu b thiet-thoi rat nhieu.
Xuat-than quan binh, Chua Trnh lo bao-thu quyen-li cua quan-nhan : nao cap cong-ien, nao ban chc-sac cho quan binh. Muon rong vay canh, Chua Trnh con tao them mot ngach giam ban trong ngach cai-tr thi ay.
Nam 1718, muon giam the-lc cua s-phu, Trnh Cng (1709-1729) at phu Chua mot c-quan rieng goi la Luc-phien. "Viec g cung ben Luc-phien lam ca. Luc-bo cua Trieu-nh (vua Le) khong con quyen g na".
en i Trnh Giang (1729-1740), "nha Chua chi-bi xa-x, lai co nhieu giac-gia, phai tm cach lay tien, at ra c t pham tr xuong ai nop 600 quan th c thang mot bac. Con nhng ngi chan trang ma ai nop 2800 quan th c bo tri-phu, 1800 quan th c bo tri-huyen". Khong phai ban ham nh i Tran Du-Tong hay i Le Thanh-Tong, Chua Trnh a ban chc thc cho bon troc-phu. Nh the, gia-tr cua s-phu quan-lieu phai v o ma sa-sut. Trong con mat ho, Chua Trnh la bon long-quyen, khong xng-ang cho ho ton-th. Trai lai, ang toi trung phai coi bon ay la quan bat-ngha.
Trong khi chanh-sach cua Chua Trnh a lam cho giai-cap quan-lieu phai tan ra Bac-ha, th trong Nam, Chua Nguyen lai m rong ca e thau dung nhn-tai. B lan ap, giam gia ang Ngoai, tat-nhien nho-s Bac-ha phai tran vao Nam tm "Minh quan" diet Trnh vay !
Nhng ngi hoc rong tai cao, co tai hung-bien, anh giac gioi, phung-s Chua Nguyen phan nhieu la ngi Bac-ha vao Nam :
ao Duy T (1572-1634), lang Hoa-Trai (Thanh-hoa);
Nguyen Hu Tien (1602-1666), lang Van-Trai (Thanh-hoa);
Nguyen Hu Dat (!604-1681) lang Gia-Mieu, (Thanh-Hoa).
Chnh nhng cong than ay a giup Chua Nguyen chong quan Trnh hn na the-ky (t nam 1617 en nam 1672) : xay on Trng-Duc, ap luy ong-Hi, chan c quan Cua Trnh ben kia Song Gianh.
Cung chung so phan vi giai cap quan-lieu cua trieu-nh nha Le, gia-nh C Trinh cung tm "minh quan" e pho Le diet Mac, roi sau diet Trnh, va a tng giup chua Nguyen ac-lc. Bang-chng la gia-pho C Trinh goc ho trnh a hoa ra ho Nguyen, t ong Nguyen ang e.

B- Hoan canh xa-hoi a un-uc tinh-than sang-tac quyen Sai Vai

Bac-ha, Chua Trnh v chanh-sach tham-tan b ham vao mot tnh-trang be-tac : cac tang lp dan-chung trong xa-hoi t ban nong, thng-nhn en s-phu eu bat-bnh, hoac theo cac ton-that nha Le (Le Duy Chuc, Le Duy Quy, Le Duy Mat), hoac t mnh khi ngha e diet Trnh pho Le :
Nguyen C Hai-Dng (1739),
Vu nh Dung Sn-Nam,
Nguyen Danh Phng (Quan Heo) man bien o-Sn (1743-1751).
Le Duy Mat th chong-c rat lau, t nam 1738 en nam 1769.
Nhng trong khi ay, Nam-ha, Chua Nguyen nh hiep sc vi s-phu i sat vi that-te, tr nen cc thanh di trieu Vo-Vng (1738-1765). en trieu Vo-Vng, hai muc chanh trong chng-trnh nha Nguyen a thc-hien :
1.- Chong Trnh phng Bac;
2.-To-chc noi-tr e cung-co quyen t-chu, va hoan-thanh cuoc Nam-tien (1759).
Chnh trong giai-oan nay ta se thay bat ro vai-tro lch-s cua nho-s cap-tien ma ong Nguyen C Trinh la nha Lanh-ao sang-suot nht.

a.-Trieu Vo-Vng; t 1738 en 1750

Chua Nguyen Phuc Khoat cai-cach viec noi-tr. Chua Nguyen Phuc Khoat la v chua th tam cua Trieu Nguyen, rat co thanh-the.
Bay v tien-boi cua Chua la :
1.-Nguyen Hoang, Thai-To Gia Du, Chua Tien (1558-1613).
2.-Nguyen Phuc Nguyen, Hy-Tong Hieu Van, Chua Sai (1613-1635).
3.-Nguyen Phuc Lan, Than-Tong Hieu Chieu, Chua Thng (1636-1648).
4.-Nguyen Phuc Tan, Thai-Tong Hieu Triet, Chua Hien (1648-1687).
5.-Nguyen Phuc Tran, Anh-Tong Hieu Ngha, Chua Ngha (1687-1691).
6.-Nguyen Phuc Chu, Hien-Tong Hieu Minh, Quoc Chua (1691-1725).
7.-Nguyen Phuc Chu, Tuc-Tong Hieu Ninh, nh Quoc Cong (1725-1738).
Bay i trc van xng Chua, en The-Tong Nguyen Phuc Khoat, mien Nam a c vng ben thanh-tr, nen sau sau nam tr-v, en nam giap T (1744), chua la ngi th nhat xng vng lay hieu Vo-Vng.
Chua sanh ngay 18 thang 8 nam Giap Ngo (nham 26-9-1714), chua ke v cha (ngay 7-6-1738), cha c hai mi lam tuoi. Ngai : "sc lc khoe manh, mat mui khoi-ngo, toc e dai a hoa ram, tran rong, tai dai, mat to ma khong tho, rau mep ram en, mieng rat ti, di cam co t rau tha-tht. Co ngai hi to, vai rong va ngc n, hai ban tay dai, bung to, ngi to ln be-ve, chan va phai va ban chan to.
"Nhng khi Ngai ng, ao ai trieu th du ng gia hang tram quan cung nhan ra c, v khong ai to ln bang Ngai"; (Chan-dung Ngai ta luc Ngai 35 tuoi). Va len ngoi (1738), Ngai a an-xa mot so toi-nhn, thang pham-trat cho quan-than, cho en may quan co ao Thien-Chua cung c thang chc. Ranh tay vi ho Trnh at Bac va hoan-thanh cuoc an-ninh trong nc, Ngai ch con lo pho-trng uy-the va m rong lanh-tho vao Nam.
Ngai lo lap dinh nh phu. Cuoi nam 1738 va au nam 1739, Chua cho cat mot cai ien theo kieu mi ben ta ien cu tai at Phu-Xuan. Thu ay cac co-ao Thien-Chu c Chua Ninh-Vng (1725-1738), vi chanh-sach khoan-hong, cho phep truyen giao, nen a xay dng "nha th" khap nc; ngay tai kinh-o Hue co en nam canh nha th. Kieu kien-truc mi cua Au-tay du-nhap vao trong x. Nam1754 Chua cho xay them nhng dinh cho cac hien than, lap vn Thng-Uyen va lam ho Vong Nguyet.
Vi ch lam chuyen ln, nam Giap T (1744), Ngai xng vng hieu, phong vng cac bac tien-e, ban chc-tc cho Hoang-toc. Cac quan van vo trong trieu eu co sac phuc te-chnh. Quan chia ra lam sau bo. Bo ve van-hoc goi la Han-lam. ao ve-binh th at ten la Vo-lam.
Nc chia ra lam 12 dinh :
Phu Quang-Ngha va phu Quy-Nhn th thuoc ve Quang-Nam; at ha-Tien th at tran.
Ngai ra lenh cho dan-gian oi y-phuc : loi an mac theo ang Ngoai c thay-the bang loi y-phuc cua ngi tau.
Trong nc thai-bnh thanh-tr; nong nghiep phat-at; thng nghiep phon-thanh. Cac nc ngoai ra vao buon-ban Hoi-An (faifoo), at Nam-ha thu ay c cac thng nhan ngoai-quoc goi la Quang-Nam Quoc.
Trong x xai tien ong; nam 1745, Vo-Vng cho mua kem Au-chau ve che ra them th tien kem, e tien viec thng mai.
Vo-Vng biet-ai giai-cap s-phu. Nam Canh Than (1740), Ngai nh lai phep thi :
Ngi au ky e nht goi la nhieu-hoc, c mien sai 5 nam;
au ky e nh va e tam c mien sai chung than;
au ky e t goi la hng-cong, c bo lam tri-phu, tri huyen .
Thi nay xuat-hien vai quyen han-van :

b-Cuoc khung-hoang ton-giao di trieu Vo-vng

S cai-cach do ch ln cua The-Tong Nguyen Phuc Khoat lai bat nguon va i oi vi viec khung-hoang ton-giao thi bay gi; phong-trao "sam truyen" tran lan khap nc. ai y nhng sam o la: "en tam i th tr ve Kinh-o", hoac la:"at Nam-ha co tam i Chua. Chng nao nui hoa thung-lung, ca bien b lap nghet..., ngi mi xuat-hien ra, bay gi nc se ve tay ngi khac va se b ngi ngoai-quoc thong tr".
Cac v hoa-thng san ghet ao dang s xin nha vua chong ao Thien-Chua. Ho giai thch rang s cam gian cua Thien-nh a lam phat hien ra nhng thien-tai tham khoc:
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ao Thien-Chua a b cam nhat t nam 1644. en i Minh-Vng (1691-1725), s giet ao lai con kch-liet, bi chua ton-sung ao Phat.
Chua Ninh-Vng (1725-1738) ke v ban lnh an-xa toi nhan huy tieu sac lenh cam ao. Nh nhan-cach ao-hanh cua cac co-ao, con chien theo ve ngay mot ong. Tham ch ba phi sung ai cua vua, ba phi T-Man ho Tran cung theo ao. Nha th xay dng khap x.

c-Moi a-Vach.

quang-Ngha co moi a-Vach.v chung vung nui a dng nh tam vach. Vung ay choan t thung-lung song Tra-Khuc en ta ngan song An-Lao. en trieu Vo-vng, gap nhng nam ma lut oi kem chung xuong quay-nhieu, quan quan anh mai khong c. Nam Canh Ngo (1750), Vo -Vng bo Nguyen C Trinh lam Tuan-phu Quang-Ngha lo viec phu-du quan Moi ay.
Nhan thay tam-ly suy-oi cua quan quan va quan chung, ong biet khong the ot ngot c binh. Nhn c-hoi "Moi a-Vach" ong don ng e tuyen-truyen kin-ao cho cuoc Nam-Tien hoan-thanh :
"Neu khong anh e sau sanh te",
cho ung vi cau : "Nhung ch th ng"
bi :
"ng Nam phng thay o chang xa".
Vi may cau ket-thuc trong truyen Sai Vai, ong a boc-lo t-tng cap-tien cua mnh e hap dan dan-tnh bang giong van nom bien cach : van ve cua bnh-dan. Dung loi van-ap, ong to y ran bao va kch -thch tng-ta.
Ch cng-quyet cua ong a c ban-thng bang s thanh-cong. Ong tien quan : mot ao binh keo en ni th bon moi a bo sao-huyet tron het. Ong chang voi rut binh. Ong cho lap "Quang-Ngai on dinh" vi sau "ao" lo nghiem viec canh-phong. Ong cho cat trai, m on-ien, lam ke nh lau. Giac Moi thay the hoang s ra au thu.

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Nguyen C Trinh tha-thiet vi quan-niem : tr quoc bnh thien-ha bang cach ap-dung thuyet " tri hanh hiep nhat" cua Vng Dng Minh. Khi bnh nh Moi a Vach, ong khong dung loi an-ap bang quan-s hay tuyen-truyen suong. Ro biet chung v nan ma lut oi ret ma lam lieu, pha quay cp git, nen viec au tien cua ong la lo giai-quyet van-e sanh-ke cua chung bang cach to-chc lap on-ien. Vo tnh hay co y, ong thiet lap mot giai-cap tan-a-chu. Chnh giai-cap ay se bao-ve hoa-bnh e an-c lac-nghiep. Mua ong nam 1751, ong lam s dang vua, bay to noi kho s cua tho dan va yeu cau Trieu-nh nen tuy thi e gi long dan, v dan la goc cua nc. S ay tau len, khong cong-hieu g ong ben xin t chc. Vua mi trieu ve, bo ong sang lam chc ky-luc dinh Bo-Chnh. Ni ay ong to ra sang-suot. Va en la ong lo at them on-luy, canh-phong can-mat.. Luc bay gi, Chua Trnh gi th xin mn ng Tran-Ninh e i anh Le Duy Mat. Ong viet th tra li khong cho. Ben Trnh biet rang ong co phong-b nen thoi.
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II- D-ba quyen Sai Vai hay la s hoan-thanh cuoc Nam-Tien

Nh soan quyen Sai Vai e can khuyen quan quan va kch-thch tng-s ma ong Nguyen C Trinh tien binh c va bnh-nh Moi a-Vach. Cuoc thang tran ay Khien trieu-nh e y en tai thao-lc va oc to-chc cai-tr cua ong, khi ong va ba mi lam tuoi.
Tai kinh-bang cua ong con thay khi c bo lam ky-luc Bo-Chnh dinh la ong lo cung-co cuoc phong-thu, nen quan Trnh chang dam lam ngang.
Nhan ro chan-tai ay, nen nam 1753, khi vua Chan-Lap Nac Ong Nguyen lan hiep ngi Con-Man trong Nam, Trieu-nh ben c ong lam tham-mu lo viec anh dep. Ong ba phen thang giac, hien "Ke tam thc" va sau mi nam coi ngoai, hoan thanh cuoc Nam-tien : nc Thuy Chan-Lap hoan-toan thuoc ve chua Nguyen ang Trong.
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May i Chua trc ch chiem mien ong, va pha tay, thau phuc Ha-Tien. Bay gi, mien rng sat hoang-vu cc nam la vung Loi-Lap (Go-Cong), Tam-Bon (Tan-An) va vung cac ca song Cu-Long la Ba-Thac (Soc-Trang, Bac-Lieu) va Tra-Vang (Tra-Vinh, Ben-Tre) van thuoc cua vua Chan-Lap.
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ong thi vi viec thon-tnh nc Chiem eo-hep (1611-1692), Chua Nguyen a tien lan xuong mien ong-Nai, ph-nhieu. Hn mot the-ky (1623-1739) do viec gianh ngoi lan nhau cua may vua Mien ma Chua Nguyen lan hoi thau-phuc at-ai: Mo-Xoai (Ba-Ra, Bien-Hoa: 1658), Sai-Con (Gia-nh: 1698), nh-Tng (My-Tho) va Long-Ho (Vnh-Long: 1731). Pha vnh Xiem-La, Mac-Cu dang at Ha-tien va hon Phu-Quoc cho Chua Nguyen t nam1714, va sau, con la Mac Thien T m them bon huyen (1739): Long-xuyen (mien Ca-Mau), Kien-Giang (Rach-Gia), Tran-Giang (mien Can-Th) va Tran-Di (mien bac Bac-Lieu).
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en Trieu Vo-Vng, vua Chan-Lap Nac Ong Tha (Sothea) nh chua Nguyen ma gi ngoi bau La-Bch (Lovek)(1736-1748). Sau Nac Ong Tham (Thomea), chu cua Tha, thua chay tron ben Xiem t nam 1715, lai tr ve anh uoi Nac Ong Tha va cp ngoi (1748), song chang bao lau, mat.
May ngi con cua Tham tranh ngoi, Vo-Vng sai Nguyen Hu Doan lam thong-suat anh dep va lap Nac Ong tha lam vua tr lai. c vai thang, Tha b con cua Tham la Nac Nguyen (Ang Snguon) em quan Xiem ve anh uoi (1750). Tha thua, chay sang Gia-nh cau cu, nhng chet ay.
Nac Nguyen tranh c ngoi vua lai thng em binh lan-hiep ngi Con-Man la tan-tch dan Chiem sang tru-ngu t nam 1693. Mat Bac, Nac Nguyen lai thong-s vi Chua Trnh Doanh (1740-1767) e lap mu anh Chua Nguyen ma gianh lai Thuy chan-Lap.
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Tnh the nghiem-trong.

Bay gi trong nc nong-nghiep m-mang: thng-mai vi ngoai-quoc c thanh-vng; nghe khai mo ( mo vang thuan-Hoa va Quang-nam, mo bac Quang-Ngha, mo sat Bo-Chanh) c phat-at. Nha nc thau thue c nhieu "Tnh o ong t nam 1746 en nam 1752, so vang, thau c hn nam ngan lng, so bac, thau trot van lng..."
Vay phai lo nga giac trc; va lai, o cung la c-hoi, khi nc giau manh, cho Vo-Vng lo m rong bien-cng... Nen mua ong nam Quy Dau 1753, Vo-Vng sai ong Thien-Chnh (khuyet ten) (1) lam thong-suat va ong Nguyen C Trinh, ky-luc Bo-Chanh dinh lam tham-mu, ieu-khien tng-s nam dinh(1) i anh Nac Nguyen. Quan tien en Ng-Ch(Ben-Nghe), lap dinh-trai, ken s-tot, tr-b cho nhieu, e lam ke khai-thac.
Mua ha nam Giap Tuat (1754), ong C -Trinh vi ong thong-suat chia quan tien len. Ong C Trinh en au, giac eu quy-phuc; i qua at Tan Le (?) ra en song Ln cung hoi quan vi ong Thien-Chnh on Lo-yem(?). T o tien binh :phu Loi-Lap (Soi-Rap:Go-Cong), phu Tam-Bon(Tan-An), phu Cau-Nam(Ba-Nam), phu Nam-Vinh(Nam-Vang; Phnom-Penh), bon phu hang ca. Roi chieu-phuc ngi Con-Man e lam thanh-the.
Nac Nguyen chay tron gan Vnh-Long; gap mua nc noi, phai ngng anh pha. en mua xuan nam At Hi(1755), ong Thong-suat ve on My-Tho, dan theo hn van ngi Con-Man mi chieu-phuc. en at Vo-Ta-An(?) b quan cua Nac Nguyen o ra anh up. Quan cua ong Thong-suat i hau tap b mac bui ram vung lay, khong the en cu-vien. Ong Nguyen C Trinh mi em quan cua ong en cu c hn nam ngan ngi Con-Man, va trai va gai, roi em ve tru nui Ba inh(Ba en).
Nhan ong hach tau ong Thien-Chnh ve toi e mat c-nghi ma bo dan mi phu-hang, Vua giang ong ay xuong lam chc cai-oi, cho ong Trng Phuc Du thay the. Ong C Trinh vi ong Phuc Du bat ngi Con-Man i tien-phong en anh hai phu Cau-Nam va Nam-Vinh.
Nac Nguyen thua, chay tron sang Ha-Tien nng theo Mac Thien T, nh T xin ho vi Chua Nguyen, hien hai phu Tam-Bon, Loi-Lap e chuoc toi, va bo vao le trieu-cong a bo ba nam ve trc, cung e xin cho ve nc. Vua khong cho. Ong C trinh mi dang so tau rang :
"T xa, s d dung en binh, chang qua la muon giet a c-khoi, m-mang b coi ma thoi. Nay Nac Nguyen a hoi-qua, biet nop at hien cua. Neu khong cho no hang, th no se chay tron; ma t Gia-nh en La-Bch, ng-sa xa-xoi, khong tien uoi anh. Vay muon m mang b coi, chi bang hay lay hai phu ay, gi chat pha sau cho hai dinh(Phien-Tran va Tran-Bien). Nam xa, i m phu Gia-nh, trc phai m phu Hng-Phuc(Bien-Hoa), roi m en phu Loc-Da (ong-Nai) e quan-dan hoan-tu, roi sau mi m at Sai-Con. o la cai ke "tam an dau" o.